Monday, 8 March 2010

About Galmudug

Galmudug, is a secular, decentralized state in the central region of Somalia. The administrative capital, South Galcayo, is based in the southern half of the city and district of Gaalkacyo. To the north is Puntland, to the west is Ethiopia and to the south and east is the rest of Somalia, presently under the control of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG). The name is a combination of Galguduud and Mudug. Unlike the secessionist Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia, Galmudug, like the northern Somali region of Puntland, is not trying to obtain international recognition as a separate nation. It considers itself a federal division within the larger federal republic of Somalia, such as defined by the 2004 Transitional Federal Charter (TFG).
1 Overview
2 History
2.1 Creation of Galmudug
2.2 Relations with Puntland
2.3 Geography
2.4 War with the Islamic Courts Union
2.5 Al-Shabaab and Pirates
2.6 Reconstruction
3 References
4 Further reading
edit] Overview
The Galmudug State is the most centrally located area in Somalia. It is equidistant from Galkaio (the state capital) by 750 km to Mogadishu, Hargeisa, Bossaso and Harar in Ethiopia.[
citation needed] Its land area - one of the largest 16 original regions of Somalia - is 100,000 km². and it is bordered to the East by the Indian Ocean, to the West by Ethiopia, Nugaal region (currently Puntland) on the North and to the South by Galgadud region.
edit] History
For pre-colonial history, see
Sultanate of Hobyo
[edit] Creation of Galmudug
Prior to June 6, 2006, the clans of central Somalia were part of the vast territories held by the "Mogadishu Warlords", the powerful businessmen-warlords who each ruled a district of
Mogadishu and conducted their business there. Financial development, security and infrastructure were all funnelled into Mogadishu by these warlords and the regions of Mudug and Galgadud in particular became seriously neglected. For the Mogadishu warlords, Mudug and Galgadud was a place to import soldiers and livestock, Mogadishu was where to invest and develop.
From March 2006 to June 2006 the
Islamic Courts Union battled and defeated the Mogadishu warlords and shattered their power, allowing the ICU to conquer all of the capital as well as the Middle Shabelle region. As a side consequence of this however, the central regions became independent of the Mogadishu warlords for the first time in 17 years, and finally had a say in how the regions were administered. The Sacad clan diaspora and political leadership, taking note of the success Puntland and Somaliland have had with autonomy, began to work towards establishing a regional state.
Galmudug was established on August 14, 2006 by the
Sacad Sub-clans, Reer Nimcaale, Reer jalaf, Reer cabdi, Reer mohamed, Reer Hilowle, Reer Sinoole, Farale, Reer barqadle. Reer Ayaanle. Indha-yar and all other Sacad sub-clans elders in Galkacyo District. Mohamed Warsame Ali 'Kiimiko' was elected President.
The state was named Galmudug (Galgadud and Mudug) with the cities of South
Galcayo, Galinsoor and Bandiradley. Hobyo were technically a part of Galmudug from the outset, but de-facto authority rested in the pirates who ruled the towns and preyed on shipping along the coast. This changed when the ICU flushed out the pirates from Hobyo and Harardhere on August 16, 2006, and later when the ICU conquered Harardhere and Hobyo in early November 2006, to be reconquered by Galmudug forces in early 2007 with the help of Ethiopia, Puntland and the Sacad warlord Abdi Qeybdiid.
However, control by a central government remains fleeting. Much of the area of Galmudug remains under control of coastal pirates and Islamic militants groups, such as
edit] Relations with Puntland
Galmudug was put at odds with Puntland due to the fact that they were often made victims of collective punishments designed to hurt the ICU during the ICU's rule of most of southern Somalia in 2006. For instance in October Puntland banned flights to and from southern Somalia (except to Baidoa of course), including, due to proximity, Galmudug. Galmudug condemned this move strongly.
On November 10, 2006, Galmudug sought the removal of forces from adjoining Puntland.[2] However by December, it had grown increasingly reliant on forces from both Puntland and Ethiopia to dislodge the militias of the ICU.
Galmudug and Puntland are currently involved in a dispute over control of Galkacyo Airport, which is located in Galmudug-Controlled southern Galkacyo, but is controlled by Puntland, which has led to several incidents including most recently a missile attack on the airport from the Galmudug-administered side on June 1, 2008.
[edit] Geography

Map of Galmudug
Galmudug State occupies the following
Districts of Somalia:[4]
Mudug Region - Districts:
Galcayo (State Capital)
Cel Dhanaane
Hobyo Region - Districts:
edit] War with the Islamic Courts Union
Main article:
Battle of Bandiradley
Galmudug and the ICU clashed increasingly in October and November 2006, leading to an ICU invasion of Galinsoor, Hobyo, Harardere, Bandiradley and Abdi Qeybdiid's base in the Marehan town of Abudwaq in November and December. A joint Ethiopia-Puntland force intervened to prevent the ICU from capturing Galcayo (the most important city in the region), the northern half of which is administered by Puntland. The Ethiopia-Puntland-Galmudug-Abdi Qeybdiid coalition emerged victorious and recaptured Bandiradley and Galinsoor.
On January 1, 2007, Abdi Qeybdiid and the Puntland/Ethiopian force parted ways with the Galmudug military and continued on towards Mogadishu, briefly occupying
Adado and Dusamareb.[5] To this day, the status of the majority of Galgadud (except Gelinsoor, administered by Galmudug) is unresolved.
edit] Al-Shabaab and Pirates
While the Transitional Federal Government made an agreement to admit members of the former Islamic Courts Union into the government in a bid to unify the country, violence continues to plague the central Somali coast. It takes two primary forms: piracy by various tribal groups, and Islamic extremist movements, such as Al-Shabaab.
Piracy has been rampant along the coast of Somalia, with at least 111 attacks against shipping and 42 vessels captured during 2008.
In December 2008, Hobyo pirates and Al-Shabaab militants fought over the control of Hobyo.[7]
[edit] Reconstruction
Galmudug state with its limited resources has managed to open 8 new schools. Medicine San-franse had promised to fund the schools but that did not materialise after several of their staff were kidnapped in lieu for the withdrawal of the funds to Galmududg state educational programmes. The state also embarked an audacious plan to solicit funds to build a modern port in Hobyo that could be used businesses in central Somali and even by landlocked Ethiopia. A 172 Miles tarmac dual carriage road that would go through Hobyo- Galkacio- and further a field into Ogadenia has been planned in order to boost commercial and transport links in that part of Ethiopia which is inhabited mainly by poor ethnic Somalis who continue to live under occupation of hostile Ethiopian regimes.
Galmudug State military is composed of remnants from the dreaded Ex USC/SNA Forces of General M.F Aideed who have been acknowledged in the documentary Black-hawk down to the most efficient and battle-harded fighting forces throughout the ensuing civil war in Somalia. Western military analysts also believe that the Galmudug state forces do indeed hold in their possession a substantial amount of heavy armament that was looted from the former Somali national army which was never used in the civil war by the USC forces of the late Gen M. Aideed. But most of these would in due time be handed back to a Genuine Somali Govt if formed. Galmudug state has an ambitious plan to revitalise by way of priority the Education system with the importation of highly qualified teachers from India, South Africa and ethnic Somali Teachers from North East province of Kenya.in order to keep costs to the education budget to a minimum in the long run, plans have been made to build teachers quarters alongside every school that was build in order to provide free accommodation to the teachers. A trust fund has been set up which the Unicef, the India Govt, and a number of Dubai based corporations has promised contribute to. Also a team from Galmudud state ministry of Education recently travelled to Cairo, London, Manchester, Columbus Ohio, South Carolina and Minneapolis in an encouraging college graduates from that region in the Diaspora to take up training in the teaching of sciences and mathematics. Scholarships have also been offered in the spirit of fulfilment of the aforemention education goals by University of Alexandria in Egypt.
edit] References
^ Somalia: Galmudug state condemns Puntland ban on flights from southern Somalia SomaliNet News
^ Somalia: Galmudug state asks Puntland army to withdraw its territory. Shabelle Media Network
^ Puntland accuses Galmudug over the attack on Galkayo’s airport
^ "Gamudug". http://www.galmudug.com/. Retrieved 2007-02-27.
^ "Somalia: No revenge against Islamists - former warlord". SomaliNet. 2007-01-01. http://somalinet.com/news/world/Somalia/6350. Retrieved 2007-01-29.
^ "Somali Fishermen Opt for Piracy's Rich Pickings". London: Times Online. 2009-04-07. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/africa/article6045092.ece. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
^ "Clashes between Somali Liberators and Pirates at Hobyo – Ecoterra 85th Press Release Update". 2008-12-21. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/clashes-between-somali-liberators-and-pirates-at-hobyo-ecoterra-85th-press-release-update.html. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
edit] Further reading
A. Jimale (ed), The Invention of Somalia. Lawrenceville, NJ, 1995
Cassanelli, Lee V., The Shaping of The Somali Society- Reconstructing the History of a Pastoral People, 1600-1900. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Univ. Press, 1982.
Middleton, John. The World of the Swahili- An African mercantile civilisation. Yale University 1992.
vde Somalia
Capital: Mogadishu
Politics (Parliament - Foreign relations) · Geography · Economy (Currency: Somali shilling) · Communications · Transportation · History · Human rights · Culture · Law · Demographics · Military
Disputed andde facto states
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Somaliland · Puntland · Galmudug
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See also
War in Somalia
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galmudug"
Categories: Geography of Somalia States of Somalia Galmudug States and territories established in 2006
Hidden categories: Articles needing cleanup from June 2009 All pages needing cleanup All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March 2008 Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009

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